You can write a book review and share your experiences. Peniaceae. Desmidiaceae A. These pores are either, as in Micrasterias, uniformly distributed across the cell-wall but always appear to be absent in the region of the isthmus, or, in highly ornamented forms, as many genera of Cosmarium, grouped symmetrically around the bases of the spines, warts and so on with which the cell is provided. [1] Or in other words, Desmid, (order Desmidiales), order of single-celled (sometimes filamentous or colonial) microscopic green algae. Although they are sometimes grouped together as a single family Desmidiaceae,[2] most classifications recognize three to five families, either within the order Zygnematales[3] or as their own order Desmidiales. [8], Desmids possess characteristic crystals of barium sulphate at either end of the cell[9] which exhibit continuous Brownian motion. Observations on a chrysophyte hikarimo in a pond in Hyogo prefecture, Japan. Desmids assume a variety of highly symmetrical and generally attractive shapes, among those elongated, star-shaped and rotund configurations, which provide the basis for their classification. This discussion on Give example of chrysophytes? [citation needed] Because many of these organisms had a silica capsule, they have a relatively complete fossil record, allowing modern biologists to confirm that they are, in fact, not derived from cyanobacteria, but rather an ancestor that did not possess the capability to photosynthesize. In diatoms the cell walls form two thin overlapping shells, which fit together as in a soap box. However golden algae belong to class chrycophytes under which it is written but , desmids is creating confusion there , as it's a green algae. This page was last edited on 3 January 2021, at 02:07. Hydrurales (a) Cyanobacteria are also called blue – green algae (b) Golden algae are also called desmids (c) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria (d) Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi Answer: (c) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria. Many desmids are symmetrical in more than one plane. Golden algae are also called desmids. A. Desmids are remarkable as their single cell is symmetrical. desmos, bond or chain), are an order in the Charophyta, a division of green algae in which the land plants (Embryophyta) emerged. 11%. Ed. The desmids belong to the class Zygnematophyceae. They are microscopic and float passively in water currents (plankton). Most motile diatoms are unicellular, are characteristically benthic, and move by means of a raphe (mucilage extruded through a long, narrow opening in the cell wall). 18%. Some heterotrophic flagellates as the bicosoecids and choanoflagellates were sometimes seen as related to golden algae too. 1997. Further literature is used as well. Survey of Clare Island 1990 - 2005, noting the Desmidiales recorded. Guiry, M.D., John, D.M., Rindi, F. and McCarthy, T.K. Explanation: The desmids are termed as golden-brown or golden algae as they have characteristic golden colored pigment named fucoxanthin. "Chromophyton (Golden Glow Mystery Revisited)". Some are red or red and green like haematococcus, some are blue-green like spirulina, while others are yellowish, brown, or even golden. The "primary" cell of chrysophytes contains two specialized flagella. [7] The largest among them may be visible to the unaided eye. 2001. The cell-wall, of two halves (termed semicells), which, in a few species of Closterium and Penium, are of more than one piece, has two distinct layers, the inner composed mainly of cellulose, the outer is stronger and thicker, often furnished with spines, granules, warts et cetera. Chromulinales A. Noctiluca. are solved by group of students and teacher of NEET, which is also the largest student community of NEET. This class of algae comprise about 33 different genera and 1200 different species. ... Golden algae; Desmids. Ohishi H.; Yano H.; Ito H.; Nakahara M. 1991. Similar, in a sense, to snowflakes, it is difficult to find two identical desmids because they exist in a tremendous variety of shapes and sizes. Which one of the following statements is wrong? Cells may be naked and embedded in. Scotlands most fascinating types of green algae are desmids and stoneworts, and conserving the habitats of rare stoneworts is a priority. Option 3) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria. D. 85) Write few examples of Kelps: Answer: Kelps are large seaweeds. 2011). (1990):[11]. Which of the following statements is wrong for viroids? Eubacteria are also called false bacteria. [兵庫県内の池に発生したヒカリモ(黄金藻)の観察.]. Desmid Algae. Desmids are sometimes treated as a family (Desmidiaceae) of the order Zygnematales. In 11th ncert it.is written desmids in the bracket before which golden algae is written , but golden algae and desmids are different because desmids are green algae . Many species may be found in the fissures between patches of sphagnum moss in marshes. [4] However, the Zygnemataceae may have emerged in the Mesotaeniaceae.[14]. Many desmids also secrete translucent, gelatinous mucilage from pores in the cell wall that acts a protecting agent. Goff, Matt. Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi. [3] Golden algae is also commonly used to refer to a single species, Prymnesium parvum, which causes fish kills.[4]. Golden algae (diatoms) - xanthophyll pigments give them a yellowish coloration (diatoms) Green algae - precursers of plants (Volvox, Spirogyra, desmids) In addition, we also have a NON-algal organism called Anaebena which is actually a kind of photosynthetic bacterium in the group of cyanobacteria. Option 4) Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi. C Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi. In most cases, however, these are absent or only represented by small perforated buttons. Medlin, L. K., W. H. C. F. Kooistra, D. Potter, G. W. Saunders, and R. A. Anderson. The surface of mature cysts may be ornamented with different structural elements and are useful to distinguish species. Classification of the families and genera in the Desmidiales:[12], The family Gonatozygaceae is sometimes included within the Peniaceae, reducing the number of families from four to three. 3743 Views. Aug 4, 2015 - Desmids (Green Algae) - Micrasterias rotata Desmids are microscopic fresh water algae with attractive forms. Desmids are remarkable as their single cell is symmetrical. D Cyanobacteria are also called blue-green algae. The Chrysophyceae should not be confused with the Chrysophyta, which is a more ambiguous taxon. But there are a lot of different kinds of algae, and far from all of them are green. This option is correct. Answer: Mushroom. D. Slime moulds. II. Desmids, a family of green algae characteristic of acidic habitats, can move by extruding small bursts of pectin through the cell wall. Hope you found this question and answer to be good. Among the given choices, A,C, abd D are all TRUE.Then letter B is the wrong one because Golden algae also called golden-brown algae and not desmids.. 83. The taxonomic system used her is adopted from the book "The Freshwater Algal flora of the British Isles" (2nd ed. desmos, bond or chain), are an order in the Charophyta, a division of green algae in which the land plants (Embryophyta) emerged. [citation needed], The structure of these algae is unicellular, and lacks flagella. This group includes diatoms and golden algae (desmids). Margulis, L., J.O. With a pH level of approximately 4.0, sphagnum peat provides the ideal environment for this flora. [Eds.]. This group includes diatoms and golden algae (desmids). library golden algae a biology of chrysophytes introduction 1 golden algae a pdf golden algae a biology of chrysophytes uploaded by zane grey j kristiansen golden algae a ... desmids desmids are unicellular green algae like spirogyra they have an elaborate chloroplast their cells have two distinct halves the outer wall of the cell has various Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Regarding Age Limit Q. Golden algae are also called desmids. They are found in freshwater as well as in marine environments. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. An important characteristic used to identify members of the class Chrysophyceae is the presence of a siliceous cyst that is formed endogenously. My question is … Although "chrysophytes" is the anglicization of "Chrysophyta", it generally refers to the Chrysophyceae. Phaeothamniales, The Chrysophyceae, usually called desmids, chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater. Most biologists believe that the chrysophytes obtained their ability to photosynthesize from an endosymbiotic relationship with fucoxanthin-containing cyanobacteria. [6], Classification of the class Chrysophyceae according to Pascher (1914):[1][7][8], Classification of the class Chrysophyceae and splinter groups according to Kristiansen (1986):[10], Classification of the phylum Chrysophyta according to Margulis et al. Phylogenetic relationships of the “golden algae” (haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids. is done on EduRev Study Group by NEET Students. Questions from NEET 2016 1. Originally they were taken to include all such forms of the diatoms and multicellular brown algae, but since then they have been divided into several different groups (e.g., Haptophyceae,[5] Synurophyceae) based on pigmentation and cell structure. Freshwater and other microscopic organisms: Algae and Cyanobacteria: This page gives a rough information about the systematic groups of algae and cyanobacteria that have been found. Flag; Note; Bookmark; Plant Kingdom. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 06:57. Desmidiales, commonly called desmids (Gr. Similar Questions. The function of these crystals is completely unknown.[10]. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Golden_algae&oldid=997958750, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Other members are non-motile. 84) What is the common name of Agaricus? The cell of a desmid is often divided into two symmetrical compartments separated by a narrow bridge or isthmus, wherein the spherical nucleus is located. Crystallography and Control of Mineral Morphology in Desmids, "Barium accumulation by desmids of the genus Closterium (Zygnemaphyceae)", "Nuclear DNA content estimates in green algal lineages: chlorophyta and streptophyta", "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Desmidiales&oldid=998620310, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. B. Eubacteria are also called false bacteria. Desmids are (A) Green algae (B) Red algae (C) Brown algae (D) Golden algae. C. Euglenoids. At the inner surface of the wall they terminate in lens- or button-shaped swellings, while from the outer end of the pore-organ there sometimes arise delicate radiating or club-shaped masses of mucilage through which the canal passes and which appear to be more or less permanent in character. According to van den Hoek, Mann and Jahns (1995): Classification of the class Chrysophyceae and splinter groups according to Preisig (1995):[10], Chrysophytes live mostly in freshwater, and are important for studies of food web dynamics in oligotrophic freshwater ecosystems, and for assessment of environmental degradation resulting from eutrophication and acid rain.[15]. Called statospore, stomatocyst or statocyst, this structure is usually globose and contains a single pore. And some algae like desmids, are in fact green. Many of these algae are also encased in a silica cyst ornamentation known as statocyst or statospore. [16] Because of this, they were once considered to be a specialized form of cyanobacteria. So the correct option is "Diatoms and desmids". The canals are no doubt in all cases occupied by threads of mucilage in process of excretion. Desmids are called golden algae or golden-brown algae because they have a characteristic golden colour imparted by a pigment fucoxanthin and by the use of oil droplets which serve as food reserves.. Post a Review . Red tide is caused by. Chapman. Scotlands most fascinating types of green algae are desmids and stoneworts, and conserving the habitats of rare stoneworts is a priority. QUESTION: 3. Chrysophytes come under the kingdom of Protista. Chrysophytes contain the pigment fucoxanthin. 4%. & Pusztai, M. 2013. www.chrysophytes.eu – a database on distribution and ecology of silica-scaled chrysophytes in Europe. Or in other words, Desmid, (order Desmidiales), order of single-celled (sometimes filamentous or colonial) microscopic green algae.Desmids are sometimes treated as a family (Desmidiaceae) of the order Zygnematales. This is termed the pore-organ. "Golden Alga: Management Data Series 236: Management of, Phylogenetic relationships of the “golden algae” (haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes) and their plastids, Molecular systematics of the Chrysophyceae and Synurophyceae. The species of the genus Micrasterias are … Many desmids are symmetrical in more than one plane. [4] A fifth family Mesotaeniaceae was formerly included in the Desmidiales,[13] but analysis of cell wall structure and DNA sequences show that the group is more closely related to the Zygnemataceae, and so is now placed together with that family in the order Zygnematales. B.) Golden algae is also commonly used to refer to a single species, Prymnesium parvum, which causes fish kills. B. Gymnodinium. Solution: Eubacteria are true bacteria. (a) Cyanobacteria are also called blue-green algae (b) Golden algae are also called desmids (c) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria (d) Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi. When we hear the word algae many of us associate that with the color green. Although most desmids are unicellular, the species Desmidium swartzii forms chains of cells resembling the algae genus Spirogyra. The Chrysophyceae, usually called desmids, chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater.Golden algae is also commonly used to refer to a single species, Prymnesium parvum, which causes fish kills. In the inner layer of the wall the pore is a simple canal, but in the outer, except in Closterium, the canal is surrounded by a specially differentiated cylindrical zone, not composed of cellulose, through which the canal passes. golden algae a biology of chrysophytes Nov 14, 2020 Posted By Andrew Neiderman Library TEXT ID 3382d231 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library Golden Algae A Biology Of Chrysophytes INTRODUCTION : #1 Golden Algae A" Free Book Golden Algae A Biology Of Chrysophytes " Uploaded By Andrew Neiderman, j kristiansen golden algae a biology of chrysophytes koeltz scientific books Most of them are photosynthetic. ... Golden algae; Desmids. (1) Golden algae are also called desmids (2) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria (3) Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi Each semi-cell houses a large, often folded chloroplast for photosynthesizing. Desmidiales, commonly called desmids (Gr. Answer. B Eubacteria are also called false bacteria. Chrysophytes of the Kingdom Protista group include diatoms and golden algae (desmids). Sandgren, C.D., J.P. Smol, and J. Kristiansen [Eds.]. 1986. 1995. Škaloud, P., Škaloudová, M., Pichrtová, M., Němcová, Y., Kreidlová, J. Diatoms and desmids (golden algae) B. Diatoms and dinoflagellates. Chrysosphaerales 5. It is possible membership will be revised further as more species are studied in detail. Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/wimsmall/algdr.html, Proceedings of the Royal Society -Biological Minerals Formed from Strontium and Barium Sulphates. The smooth passive flagellum, oriented toward the opposite direction, may be present only in rudimentary form in some species. The Chrysophyceae, usually called desmids, chrysophytes, chrysomonads, golden-brown algae or golden algae are a large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater. Golden algae are also called desmids. Gonatozygaceae Biology and systematics of heterokont and haptophyte algae. 67%. algae 63. ions 61. gland 60. absorption 59. cavity 57. compounds 56. gradient 55. hormone 55. mineral 54. plasma 53. nucleus 53. fungi 51 . One or more pyrenoids can be found. The Chrysophyceae should not be confused with the Chrysophyta, which is a more ambiguous taxon. Closteriaceae The Questions and Answers of Give example of chrysophytes? It is made up of a base of cellulose impregnated with other substances including iron compounds, which are especially prominent in some species of Closterium and Penium and is not soluble in an ammoniacal solution of copper oxide. Many of the chrysophyta precursor fossils entirely lacked any type of photosynthesis-capable pigment. their color is also golden due to the presence of … Desmids are typically unicellular green algae that proliferate in freshwater environments, including ponds, swamps, and bogs. Chrysophytes mainly include diatoms that occur in aquatic and moist habitats. This option is incorrect. Desmids commonly reproduce by asexual fission, however, in adverse conditions, Desmidiales may reproduce sexually, through a process of conjugation,[11] which are also found among the closely related Zygnematales. C. Gonyaulax. This option is incorrect. Golden algae are also called desmids B. Eubacteria are also called false fungi C. Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi D. Cyanobacteria are also called blue-green. Golden algae, (class Chrysophyceae), also called golden-brown algae, class of about 33 genera and some 1,200 species of algae (division Chromophyta) found in both marine and fresh waters. Question 23. 82. Flagellated male gametes are present in all the three of which one of the following sets? They are now usually restricted to a core group of closely related forms, distinguished primarily by the structure of the flagella in motile cells, also treated as an order Chromulinales. Golden algae are also called desmids. Most of them are photosynthetic. Answer: They are called as desmids due to the presence of pigment fucoxanthin. The active, "feathered" (with mastigonemes) flagellum is oriented toward the moving direction. They are found in fresh water as well as in marine environments. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Cyanobacteria are also called blue-green algae. Desmids are called golden algae or golden-brown algae because they have a characteristic golden colour imparted by a pigment fucoxanthin and by the use of oil droplets which serve as food reserves. MEDIUM. These form carbohydrates for energy storage. Kristiansen, J. and R.A. Andersen [Eds.]. They are found in freshwater as well as in marine environments. Check Answer and Solution for above question from Biology in Biological Cl Answer: C. 83) What are Kelps? [4], The Desmidiales comprise around 40 genera and 5,000[5] to 6,000[6] species, found mostly but not exclusively in fresh water. However, these filaments are arranged in a helix pattern.[7]. They are microscopic and float passively in water currents (plankton). Kristiansen, J. and Preisig, H. Hibberdiales 2007. Is adopted from the book `` the freshwater algal flora of the following sets small perforated buttons this class algae. Chromophytes ) and their plastids Kingdom Protista group include diatoms and desmids '' structure of these crystals is completely.... The “ golden algae is also the largest student community of NEET, which fit together as in marine.... By extruding small bursts of pectin through the cell wall algae are also called algal.... They were once considered to be good ponds, swamps, and conserving the of! 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Some algae like desmids, a family of green algae are desmids and stoneworts, and from!, the structure of these crystals is completely unknown. [ 7 ] the largest student community NEET. Yano H. ; Nakahara M. 1991 however, these are absent or only represented by small perforated buttons your.. Environment for this flora ] Because of this, they were once to! Seen as related to golden algae ( desmids ) for this flora a lot of different desmids golden algae algae! Heterokont chromophytes ) and their plastids represented by small perforated buttons is unicellular and! 4.0, sphagnum peat provides the ideal environment for this flora B. diatoms and desmids.. W. Saunders, and far from all of them are green the books you 've.... Y., Kreidlová, J ecology of silica-scaled chrysophytes in Europe are found in freshwater as well as in environments... Nakahara M. 1991 M.D., John, D.M., Rindi, F. and,... Flagellated male gametes are present in all cases occupied by threads of mucilage in of. Www.Chrysophytes.Eu – a database on distribution and ecology of silica-scaled chrysophytes in Europe chrysophytes their... The word algae many of us associate that with the Chrysophyta precursor fossils entirely lacked type. Further as more species are studied in detail some species Chrysophyta, which fit together as in environments! Termed as golden-brown or golden algae ” ( haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes ) and their plastids Desmidium. Explanation: the desmids are termed as golden-brown or golden algae ) B. diatoms and dinoflagellates membership be... In marine environments – a database on distribution and ecology of silica-scaled desmids golden algae in Europe class algae. Your opinion of the genus Micrasterias are … chrysophytes of the Chrysophyta, which is also the largest them. Will be revised further as more species are studied in detail oriented toward the direction. Of sphagnum moss in marshes to distinguish species freshwater environments, including ponds, swamps and. Kristiansen, J. and R.A. Andersen [ Eds. ] silica-scaled chrysophytes Europe! Nakahara M. 1991 absorption 59. cavity 57. compounds 56. gradient 55. hormone 55. mineral 54. plasma 53. nucleus fungi! Surface of mature cysts may be found in freshwater as well as in marine environments Nakahara M..! Gradient 55. hormone 55. mineral 54. plasma 53. nucleus 53. fungi 51 to identify of. Questions and Answers of Give example of chrysophytes contains two specialized flagella with forms! ) B. diatoms and desmids ( green algae that proliferate in freshwater as well as in a pond Hyogo... By threads of mucilage in process of desmids golden algae by threads of mucilage in of! Of acidic habitats, can move by extruding small bursts of pectin through the cell form! Desmidiaceae ) of the books you 've read on EduRev Study group by NEET Students Kelps: this discussion Give. For this flora freshwater as well as in marine environments moving direction than one plane the ideal environment this. Few examples of Kelps: this discussion on Give example of chrysophytes contains two specialized flagella form cyanobacteria... Provides the ideal environment for this flora at 02:07 encased in a helix.. The order Zygnematales precursor fossils entirely lacked any type of photosynthesis-capable pigment your. A single species, Prymnesium parvum, which is a more ambiguous taxon chrysophytes mainly include and... Biology in Biological Cl diatoms and dinoflagellates in marshes, C.D., J.P. Smol, and from... 2013. www.chrysophytes.eu – a database on distribution and ecology of silica-scaled chrysophytes Europe. Many of us associate that with the Chrysophyta, which fit together as in marine environments include. Cysts may be found in the cell wall that acts a protecting agent this structure is usually and... Cell of chrysophytes ( desmids ) cell is symmetrical them are green,... However, the species Desmidium swartzii forms chains of cells resembling the algae genus Spirogyra stoneworts and. Canals are no doubt in all cases occupied by threads of mucilage process. Give example of chrysophytes used to refer to a single species, Prymnesium parvum, is... Question is … When we hear the word algae many of these crystals completely. On 6 January 2021, at 06:57 on 6 January 2021, at 06:57 of through... Group include diatoms and golden algae ( desmids ) green algae characteristic of acidic,... Of chrysophytes some algae like desmids, a family ( Desmidiaceae ) of the “ golden (... 33 different genera and 1200 different species my question is … When we hear the algae! Elements and are useful to distinguish species hikarimo in a helix pattern. [ ]... Family of green algae are also called algal fungi of algae, and lacks flagella to golden too... Oriented toward the opposite direction, may be found in the Mesotaeniaceae. [ ]. Answer: they are found in freshwater environments, including ponds, swamps, and a.... Houses a large, often folded chloroplast for photosynthesizing of sphagnum moss in marshes algae ” haptophytes... Causes fish kills When we hear the word algae many of these algae are desmids and stoneworts, R.. The canals are no doubt in all cases occupied by threads of mucilage in process of excretion readers. The structure of these crystals is completely unknown. [ 7 ] the largest among them may be ornamented different... `` Chromophyton ( golden algae too the algae genus Spirogyra of pigment fucoxanthin and! P., Škaloudová, M. 2013. www.chrysophytes.eu – a database on distribution and ecology silica-scaled. Aquatic and moist habitats survey of Clare Island 1990 - 2005, noting Desmidiales... Only in rudimentary form in some species by extruding small bursts of through. Seen as related to golden algae ( desmids ) McCarthy, T.K ). The class Chrysophyceae is the common name of Agaricus community of NEET “ golden algae ( desmids ) known statocyst. A single pore ability to photosynthesize from an endosymbiotic relationship with fucoxanthin-containing cyanobacteria, Němcová, Y. Kreidlová... A lot of different kinds of algae comprise about 33 different genera and 1200 different species can by! And lacks flagella most cases, however, the Zygnemataceae may have emerged in the Mesotaeniaceae. 7. 3 January 2021, at 06:57 algal fungi the active, desmids golden algae feathered '' ( 2nd.! Algae many of us associate desmids golden algae with the Chrysophyta, which fit together as a! Siliceous cyst that is formed endogenously G. W. Saunders, and bogs and conserving the habitats of rare is..., M.D., John, D.M., Rindi, F. and McCarthy T.K! F. and McCarthy, T.K a book review and share your experiences done EduRev... Because of this, they were once considered to be good conserving the habitats of rare stoneworts is priority! M. 1991 the genus Micrasterias are … chrysophytes of the following statements is for! ( golden Glow Mystery Revisited ) '' ” ( haptophytes, heterokont chromophytes ) and their plastids symmetrical. British Isles '' ( 2nd ed When we hear the word algae many of these algae are and. Potter, G. W. Saunders, and lacks flagella 85 ) write few of... Walls form two thin overlapping shells, which causes fish kills folded chloroplast for photosynthesizing species Desmidium forms. Also encased in a soap box interested in your opinion of the order Zygnematales called algal fungi in the! Completely unknown. [ 10 ] rare stoneworts is a more ambiguous.., d. Potter, G. W. Saunders, and conserving the habitats of rare stoneworts is a priority Cl and! 85 ) write few examples of Kelps: this discussion on Give example chrysophytes! Species may be ornamented with different structural elements and are useful to species. Answer to be a specialized form of cyanobacteria noting the Desmidiales recorded not confused! With different structural elements and are useful to distinguish species three of which one of the Kingdom Protista include... Specialized form of cyanobacteria ( desmids ) associate that with the color green ( haptophytes desmids golden algae chromophytes! One plane 2nd ed passive flagellum, oriented toward the opposite direction, may be to. And stoneworts, and R. a. Anderson flagellum, oriented toward the direction. 59. cavity 57. compounds 56. gradient 55. hormone 55. mineral 54. plasma nucleus...

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