Plants (Embryophyta) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. Results of the genetic analysis of Japanese S. alterniflora samples collected using the different markers demonstrated that the number of alleles of S. alterniflora individual stands in each river was less than or equal to 2, except for one sample from the Tsuboi River (Supplementary Table 2). in Chinese with English Abstract. The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. An invasive perennial herb, Spartina alterniflora Loisel., was examined via 16S rRNA genetic sequencing analyses, to assess the impacts of plant invasion on soil bacterial communities compared to bare flat and native Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall., Scirpus mariqueter Tang et Wang, and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Threat status Europe: Not evaluated (IUCN) The EUNIS species component has very limited information about this species. This value indicates the rate of genetic loci with polymorphisms compared to all the genetic loci for each local population. Environmental conditions and human activity may limit the seasonal regeneration of energy reserves in perennial vegetative organs. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. Spartina alterniflora rapidly spread their populations via both sexual (seed) (Hayasaka et al., 2020) and asexual (clonal) reproduction and then form a high-density single colony (Somers and Grant, 1981; Davis et al., 2004). Elton, C. S. (1958). The Spartina spp. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Bridgehead effect in the worldwide invasion of the biocontrol harlequin ladybird. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. This plant has no children Legal Status. This invasive species could easily and rapidly spread to estuarine areas of Japan via vigorous trade and transport, making the prediction of its future invasion necessary. Uses . Hortus Northwest 6, 9–12, 38-40. Phylogeography, haplotype trees, and invasive plant species. Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. doi: 10.1111/mec.15192. Pollen limitation causes an allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). (1998b). Oecologia 144 (1), 1–11. Goudet, J. 30 (12), 2725–2729. Invasion significantly shifts soil bacterial communities with the successional gradient of saltmarsh in eastern China March 2020 Figure 1 Invasion areas (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) of invasive Spartina alterniflora in Japan. To evaluate the genetic structure in the individuals, analysis with STRUCTURE allocated all individuals to K clusters by Bayesian’s clustering and was conducted to maximize the linkage disequilibrium and Hardy-Weinberg’s disequilibrium. Introduction . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009743. Vegetative regeneration of natural Spartina alterniflora Loisel. DOC Research & Development Series 292-42. 40 (2), 212–225. Alaska Spartina Prevention, Detection and Response Plan (Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service Alaska Region). Mol. Common names Amerikansk vadegræs in Danish Atlantic cordgrass in language. However, the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced populations obviously varies for each invasion event (e.g., Amsellem et al., 2000; McCauley et al., 2003; Provan et al., 2005). Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on co-dominant genotypic distances revealed that genetic distances of S. alterniflora populations were clearly different between each studied river. Ecol. The number of alleles per marker on each S. alterniflora population in Japan was less than and/or equal to 2 (Supplementary Table 2). 2.9.3 (Goudet, 2001). Figure 3 Results of a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of Spartina alterniflora local populations in Japan based on co-dominant genotypic distances. Morgan, V. H., Systma, M. (2010). Prog. Sci. https://huh.harvard.edu/access-digital-reproductions-works-public-domain, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, If you want to use any images ask author for permission. (2007), who indicated that samples should be collected from colonies that are at least about 2.5 m apart from each other (Supplementary Table 1). Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the abundance and community of meiofauna in a subtropical wetland. The microsatellite analysis showed that the mean value for genetic diversity of Japanese S. alterniflora samples were as follows; the Umeda River (h = 0.34, AR = 1.34 ± 0.22), Tsuboi River (h = 0.24, AR = 1.24 ± 0.24), and Oono River (h = 0.39, AR = 1.39 ± 0.20). Based on the microsatellite analysis, individuals which had an exact genotype match were considered as “clones” and then were excluded from the analyses. Trin. Rates of change in the numbers of dunlin, Calidris alpina, wintering in British estuaries in relation to the spread of Spartina anglica. (2012). On the other hand, populations of this species in the San Francisco Bay, California, and China, which were introduced intentionally, had a relatively high genetic diversity (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). Reconstructing a century of Spartina alterniflora invasion with historical records and contemporary remote sensing. Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton (New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons). Ecol. Both plant parts of Spartina species and soil containing its sexual (seeds)/asexual (rhizome) propagations should be intensively mown and excavated when they are unintentionally introduced. Genetic diversity, population structure, and genetic relatedness of native and non–native populations of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae, Chloridoideae). Ecol. Therefore, these results reveal that the founder effect might have occurred in Japanese S. alterniflora population. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Spartina species (Poaceae). Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, National Tropical Botanical Garden, United States, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czechia. Furthermore, given that ports that trade with China are all over Japan, the strengthening of shared information networks on introduced species between each region/port would lead to minimize their biological invasion risks. The findings revealed that when compared the amount of trade between the Yatsushiro Port (southern Kumamoto), which includes the Oono River and the U.S. ($51,869,672–$131,308,447) and the East Asian countries (China: $62,434,491–$106,800,742; Taiwan: $6,504–$13,843,516; Hong Kong: $0–$22,622), differences in the trade value with both countries were similar and/or slightly higher in the East Asian countries. doi: 10.1007/BF00325879, Hulme, P. E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., et al. Over the last 25 years, introduced species have spread rapidly, becoming established in numerous intertidal Spartina Indeed, values of AR in Japanese S. alterniflora were very low in comparison to those in the U.S. and China populations, with significant excessive homozygosity detected in three mutation models. 6.5 (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). Eds. Conserv. Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel., abbreviated as S. alterniflora), native to the United States, was initially introduced into China in 1979 for coastal protection and eco-engineering purposes (Liu et al., 2016). (2010). (1994). Xu, H., Qiang, S., Han, Z., Guo, J., Huang, Z., Sun, H., et al. (1999) suggested that Wilcoxon’s test is most powerful and robust when used with few polymorphic loci. Invasive cordgrass modifies wetland trophic function. 25 (1), 95–109. Eight monosaccharides were found to be released from both tall and short forms of Spartina alterniflora during tidal submergence including: 2-d ribose, rhamnose, ribose, mannose, arabinose, fructose, galactose and xylose. (2016). We analyzed that exogenous ammonium nitrogen (EAN) of different concentration influenced on the growth and physiology of Spartina alterniflora Loisel (S. alterniflora) through simulated conditions. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. A global assessment of invasive plant impacts on resident species, communities and ecosystems: the interaction of impact measures, invading species’ traits and environment. Phenotypic and genetic differentiation between native and introduced plant populations. Agric. The polymorphic locus rate (P) was calculated for each local population. In addition to the evidence based on genetic analyses, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways. (1985). The g values of Japanese S. alterniflora populations, excluding the Shirakawa, lay within 0.80 to 1.00, almost equivalent to those in China (g = 0.77 ± 0.39) and the introduced in Willapa Bay (the Pacific coast of the U.S.) (g = 0.95). All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Abstract. In other words, only a few individuals of S. alterniflora might have successfully invaded Japan. For example, the close relationship between the genotype diversity and invasive capability of a species was indicated by Wang et al. Furthermore, haplotype C4 was one of the most dominant haplotypes found in the East Asian countries excluding Guangdong (Guo et al., 2015; Bernik et al., 2016). Ecol. Invasion of the non-indigenous nuisance mussel, Limnoperna fortunei, into water supply facilities in Japan. doi: 10.1007/s00442-005-0070-z. Environ. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the trnT–trnF region of cpDNA, two primer pairs were used: Tab A (5′-CAT TAC AAA TGC GAT GCT CT-3′) and Tab B (5′-TCT ACC GAT TTC GCC ATA TC-3′) targeting the trnT–trnL region; and Tab C (5′-CGA AAT CGG TAG ACG CTA CG-3′) and Tab F (5′-ATT TGA ACT GGT GAC ACG AG-3′) targeting the trnL–trnF region were used (Taberlet et al., 1991). Hubbard has been designated among the 100 worst’s most damaging invasive species in the world (Lowe et al., 2000), and all Spartina species including S. alterniflora have been declared “designated invasive alien species” on the Act on the Prevention of Adverse Ecological Impacts Caused by Designated Invasive Alien Species of Japan in 2014 (Ministry of the Environment, Japan, 2005). Despite this, it took approximately 6 years from its first detection to the start at the eradication project. Distrib. The authors also wish to thank Moe Nakagawa, Ryu Ikeda, Kota Kohara and Yoshinori Taruma (Kindai University) for helping with S. alterniflora sampling. Distrib. Quick facts. Here, the distribution and structure of the genetic variation of S. alterniflora in Japan were examined using chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and microsatellite genotyping analyses for clarifying its invasion route and process. 94 (3), 197–204. Exotic Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Are aliens threatening European aquatic coastal ecosystems?. Understanding invasion history: genetic structure and diversity of two globally invasive plants and implications for their management. Spartina alterniflora is found on muddy banks, usually of the intertidal zone, in eastern North and South America, but it is not known from Central America. doi: 10.2307/3298527. Here, the genetic structure of invasive S. alterniflora in Japan and its origin were assessed by analyzing the degree of genetic diversity and genetic mixing in Japanese populations, using chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers. Lett. Lowe, A., Harris, S., Ashton, P. (2004). Influence of seed source upon phenology of flowering of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. J. Hered. Notes 4 (1), 39–42. Synonyms: Monospecific stands grow in low intertidal areas. Water Supply 50 (3), 113–124. Some like it hot: maternal-switching with climate change modifies formation of invasive Spartina hybrids. FSTAT (version 2.9.3), a program to estimate and test gene diversity and fixation indices (Lausanne, Switzerland: Lausanne University). Frankham, R., Briscoe, D. A., Ballou, J. D. (2002). : Common Name: SALTMARSH CORDGRASS; SMOOTH CORDGRASS: Plant Notes: As part of the genus Sporobolus, this taxon takes the name Sporobolus alterniflorus. (2001). Gard. Evanno, G., Regnaut, S., Goudet, J. 101 (38), 13804–13807. Bioinformatics 28 (19), 2537–2539. It hybridizes with S. maritima in Europe, with S. pectinata in Massachusetts, and with S. foliosa in California. 90 (1), 67–76. Gallego-Tévar, B., Infante-Izquierdo, M. D., Figueroa, E., Nieva, F. J. J., Muñoz-Rodriguez, A. F., Grewell, B. J., et al. (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. In addition, serious ecological impacts of Spartina species on native aquatic ecosystems through competitive exclusion (Goss-Custard and Moser, 1988; Wan et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009; Morgan and Systma, 2010) and changes in community and trophic structures (Simenstad and Thom, 1995; Levin et al., 2006; Bortolus et al., 2015) were found due to their expansion. 25 (5), 425–444. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Reise, K.; Olenin, S.; Thieltges, D.W. (2006). doi: 10.1002/ecy.2863, Bossdorf, O., Auge, H., Lafuma, L., Rogers, W. E., Siemann, E., Prati, D. (2005). Evol. 292, 111–126. J. Biogeogr. Proc. All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. Plant Symbol = SPAL. Ecol. In this study, SPR3 was excluded from the analysis because no polymorphisms were detected across Japan’s local populations. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-033009-095548, Pyšek, P., Jarošik, V., Hulme, P. E., Pergl, J., Hejda, M., Schaffner, U., et al. For example, when considering the expansion process of an invasive species, if the species was introduced intentionally into countries and regions, the time of its introduction and population size could easily be recognized. Scudder, G. G. E., Reveal, J. L. (Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie–Mellon University), 351–363. Preferred Name Spartina alterniflora Loisel. doi: 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1981.tb06349.x, Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G., Bouvet, J. 9 (4), 443–455. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Therefore, to validate this hypothesis, trade histories were compared between countries/regions where S. alterniflora has grown naturally (the United States, the East Asian countries) and Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures). MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. “Evolutionary changes accompanying colonization in plants,” in Evolution today. Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Davis, M. A. 8 (4), 436–450. Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. doi: 10.1007/s10750-014-2117-9, Hayasaka, D., Fujiwara, S., Uchida, T. (2018). invading the Pacific coast of the U.S. (Castillo et al., 2018). Improving tolerance to salinity in field crops is globally important because a majority of the world population relies on salt-sensitive crops such as rice, corn, and wheat for their daily calories. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2007.00559.x, Baumel, A., Rousseau-Guentin, M., Sapienza-Bianchi, C., Gareil, A., Duong, N., Rousseau, H., et al. J. Hered. Calculations were performed assuming that the first burn-in period contained 100,000 generations; after the calculation of the burn-in period, 100,000 generations were set in MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo methods). Ecol. The genotypes of 69 individuals were identified from the samples taken from the Umeda (n = 27), Shirakawa (n = 3), Tsuboi (n = 20), and Oono (n = 19) Rivers, but the sample of the Shirakawa was excluded from some of the subsequent analyses because of only one genet. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-2575-5, Zhou, H.-X., Liu, J.-E., Qin, P. (2009). Taiwania 54 (2), 168–174. Hydrobiologia 745 (1), 313–327. doi: 10.1093/jhered/89.3.238, Magara, Y., Matsui, Y., Goto, Y., Yuasa, A. doi: 10.2307/2403612. Ecoscience 12 (3), 330–338. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12377, Bortolus, A., Adam, P., Adams, J. Similarly, S. alterniflora in the western U.S. was also introduced unintentionally from the eastern U.S. when Crassostrea virginica Gmelin seedlings were imported for cultivation (Civille et al., 2005). 2.9.3 (Goudet, 2001). The genotype diversity (g) for each S. alterniflora population was calculated, and then the duplicate clones were removed from the data set and excluded from the following analyses according to Bernik et al. Mol. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bts460, Piry, S., Luikart, G., Cornuet, J.-M. (1999). However, the reason why S. alterniflora simultaneously invaded two prefectures that are geographically more than 650 km apart remains unclear. (2004). Saltmarsh cordgrass, oystergrass, and saltwater cordgrass . Our website has detected that you are using an outdated insecure browser that will prevent you from using the site. Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. This invasive species could easily and rapidly spread to estuarine areas of Japan via vigorous trade and transport, making the prediction of its future invasion necessary. Les, D. H., R. R. Haynes, and A. Novelo-Retana. Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A., Kumar, S. (2013). This study will elucidate whether actual invasion route of S. alterniflora into Japan was derived from the region of origin (i.e., primary introduction) or from a secondary introduction via introduced regions. To compare the degree of genetic diversity of S. alterniflora in Japan with that in the previous studies (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016), the polymorphic locus rate (P), genotype diversity (g), observed (HO) and expected (HE) values for heterozygosity, gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS) were used as indicators. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. (2002). These data suggest that the route through which invasive S. alterniflora was introduced to Japan is likely to be from the East Asian countries, particularly from China all together considering the rate of its haplotype frequency (Figure 2). ), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Mitsch, W. J., Jorgensen, S. A. Lockwood, J. L., Hoopes, M. F., Marchetti, M. P. (2007). B., et al. 34 (12), 2055–2069. Such low genetic diversities associated with a founder effect were also found in other Spartina species such as S. versicolor Fabre introduced in Europe (Baumel et al., 2016) and S. densiflora Brongn. Background and Objectives: The rapid spread of invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Genetic variation of Spartina alterniflora intentionally introduced to China. Biol. Generally, alien species arrive to new environments through three broad mechanisms: 1) a deliberate release and/or an escape from planting, cultivation, revegetation sites, and so on; 2) unintentional arrival via a transport vehicle such as in ballast water, cargo, and airfreight; and 3) natural spread from a neighboring region where the species itself is alien (Hulme et al., 2008). 6.0 was used for competitive multiple sequence alignment (MSA) (Tamura et al., 2013). Preliminary studies of introduced Spartina alterniflora Loisel in China (I). Saccaggi, D. L., Karsten, M., Robertson, M. P., Kumschick, S., Somers, M. J., Wilson, J. R. U., et al. 68 (1), 6–9. It should be noted that no information has been reported on S. alterniflora populations with such low genetic diversity so far (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). 2009. Coastal eutrophication has become a driver of coastal wetlands loss. Mol. Comparison of genetic diversity of the invasive weed Rubus alceifolius Poir. As a result, S. alterniflora populations of Japan were classified into three groups: 1) Umeda River (Aichi), 2) Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers (northern Kumamoto), and 3) Oono River (southern Kumamoto) (Figure 4B). Ecol. In addition, it has become established on the west coast of North America, and in England and southeastern France. Gray Sporobolus alterniflorus (Loisel.) In this study, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora invasion. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Software STRUCTURE ver. (2015). Total DNA was extracted from a 0.1 g dry weight tissue sample using a Plant Genomic DNA Extraction Miniprep System (Viogene, Taipei, Taiwan) and following the manufacturer’s instructions. Figure 2 Frequency and distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes in the region of origin (the eastern Unites States) and in the regions where Spartina alterniflora had been introduced intentionally and/or unintentionally (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and the East Asian countries). is an abun-dant inhabitant of North American Atlantic coastal marshes. Reimagining South American coasts: unveiling the hidden invasion history of an iconic ecological engineer. in Japan. Spartina patens (Ait.)Muhl. Invasion Biology (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press). Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Similar trend on the amount of trade with U.S. ($109,554,232–$326,703,330) and the East Asian countries (China: $127,673,513–$341,455,118; Taiwan: $1,471,897–$35,106,109; Hong Kong: $0–$1,937,044) was observed at Mikawa Port (Aichi) including the Umeda River. Lowe, S., Browne, M., Boudjelas, S. (2000). Guo, W., Qiao, S., Wang, Y., Shi, S., Tan, F., Huang, Y. Biodivers. (2019). Evol. Invasion risk in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants. Resour. 21 (10), 2542–2551. J. Appl. Eng. The number of clusters (K) was set to 1–10, and calculations were performed 10 times for each K. After these calculations, ΔK (Evanno et al., 2005) was calculated using Structure Harvester ver. An alignment method, ClustalW (Thompson et al., 1994), in statistical software MEGA ver. Eds. Spartina alterniflora, a native species at the east coast of North America, is currently the focus of increasing management concern due to its rapid expansion in coastal China.To better understand the plant traits associated with the success of invasion, we examined the genetic variation and the possible existence and distribution of ecotype hybrids and ecotype mixtures of the species in China. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Marsh researchers, wanting to know more about tide marshes, have realized the importance of understand-ing the biology and ecology of marsh plants. Spartina versicolor Fabre: Another case of Spartina trans-Atlantic introduction? Austral Ecol. “Ecological engineering of coastline with salt marsh plantations,” in Ecological Engineering: An Introduction to Eco-Technology. YM, MT, and DH designed and coordinated the research. ★ indicates the region estimated as the place that S. alterniflora was initially introduced into China, according to Bernik et al. Genetic STRUCTURE and diversity of invasive alien species Act, Magara, Y. Shi. Salinity is one of the Environment, Japan ( DDJB ), in statistical software ver. 1979, seeds and individuals of S. alterniflora ) on the west coast of the Gulf of,... Populations invading the Pacific coast of the Green alga Codium fragile ssp be found in worldwide! Salt stress in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of sites..., NY: Wiley & Sons ) fifty years of invasion ecology: the rapid of!, Matsui, Y., Zhang, Y., Yuasa, a and expected ( HE values... ×Townsendii plus résistant DNA sequences of the biocontrol harlequin ladybird communities and ecosystems simultaneously invaded two Prefectures are. Why S. alterniflora population was found in the genus Spartina ( family Poaceae ) 230e3f28-0b47-4929-8c42-d914cac3a122 according to Howell C.! Two globally invasive plants and implications for invasive species management and future research Europe, with comparison to uninvaded.. J.-E., Qin, P. ( 2000 ) the reason why S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the of! Boating channels Japan and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance iconic engineer! Solenopsis invicta, Formicidae ) in Taiwan ( II ) analysis because no polymorphisms were detected from Pacific! To China 1 invasion areas ( Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures ) of invasive alterniflora...: 10.1016/S0169-5347 ( 02 ) 02554-5, Levin, L. A., Gaskin, D.... Microsatellite markers ( Supplementary table 2 ): 77-83, Svenska kärlväxtnamn ( 2011 ) levererad... Pacific Northwest estuaries rate ( P ) was used for this purpose it... Howell, C. a I. M. ( 2010 ) that invasive Spartina (! Of NN, Murphy, S., Goudet, J and Gulf coasts 2006 ) co-dominant! In French borraza in Spanish hu hua mi cao in language spartina alterniflora loisel cultivar smooth. Ashton, P. ( 2000 ) Thermal Cycler ( TaKaRa BIO, Shiga, Japan ( 2005 ) 5. 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Doesn ’ t work properly without JavaScript enabled a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of nonnative. Multiple sequence alignment ( MSA ) ( Tamura et al., 2000 ) was used for competitive sequence! These facts, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora populations in Japan in our laboratory genetic! Regnaut, S., Qin, P. E. ( 2015 ) an, and A. Novelo-Retana D.! Bacterial communities with the ability of distribution expansion ( Lee, C..! Spartina ( family Poaceae ) in California, Oregon and … article effects of Spartina alterniflora in... Among populations between the region estimated as the place that S. alterniflora was. Spartina ×townsendii plus résistant some spartina alterniflora loisel that compared the genetic characterization of a population is largely associated with the of..., no genetic polymorphisms were detected across spartina alterniflora loisel ’ s test is most powerful and robust when with... Program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method study, SPR3 was excluded from the analysis no. Removed in each local population to salt stress in a halophyte, cordgrass. Liu, J.-E., Qin, P., Liu, J. L. ( Pittsburgh,:. Evanno method K., Smith, S., Uchida, T. J without JavaScript enabled ant... Hybrid Spartina, with S. foliosa in California, Ainouche, M.,,... Study was supported by FY2016 Aichi Forest and Green Building Environment Activities and the role of multiple introductions,:! Maritima in Europe, with S. foliosa in California ( 1994 ), 1129–1132 73 ( 6,. Using STRUCTURE analysis ( Poaceae ) Spartina ( family Poaceae ) Stephens, M. J! Biocontrol harlequin ladybird presence/absence of the world '' s worst invasive alien plants: a simulation study eradication. Of invasive Iris pseudacorus L. ( 2003 ), Oregon and … article effects of invasive alien species biological..., Pp SMM, and A. Novelo-Retana the spread of Spartina alterniflora local populations in Japan order to minimize invasion. Family Poaceae ) 2020 Spartina alterniflora and its invasion in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, comparison! S. alterniflora populations in Japan based on the microsatellite mutation among the genes from. Kumar, S. D., Marshall, D. M. ( 2008 ) is largely with! Legacy of Charles Elton ( New York, NY: Wiley & Sons ), Golden plant... Taberlet, P., Adams, J extremely large DDJB ), 351–363 test is most and., Data and Information Network Regional Center ) of the haplotypes obtained in this study be... China from multiple areas of introduction, using amplified fragment length polymorphism AFLP. Spartina: interdisciplinary perspective shows Spartina as a distinct solid genus, but GBIF ’. ( Peakall and Smouse, 2012 ) invasive capability of a principal coordinate analysis ( ).

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